Understanding Soka Education: A Bibliography

The following bibliographic essay provides a roadmap to relevant English sources on Soka education. We intend this bibliography to be a valuable resource for three groups of readers: 1) researchers who are new to Soka education and who seek productive starting points for their research; 2) applicants in the Center’s Education Fellows Program; and 3) general readers who are interested in learning more about the history, philosophy, and practice of Soka education. The sources included here range from full-length books to book chapters, journal articles, graduate level papers, and interviews. It is divided into sections, each a potential field of inquiry about Soka education. As study of Soka education is still in the early stages, we expect to be adding to this list of resources in the months and years to follow. Our thanks to education scholar Monte Joffee, who drafted the initial verson of this document.*
(Last updated June 2014)

Introduction: What is Soka Education?

The roots of Soka education can be traced to the life and work of Japanese educator and philosopher Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944) who, during an era of Japanese rapid industrialization and militarization, developed principles of humanistic education based on his “Theory of Value.” His work was nurtured by Josei Toda (1900-1958), a colleague and successor to Makiguchi. Daisaku Ikeda (1928-), the founder of the Soka School System and the president of the Soka Gakkai International, has written extensively to further encourage its development.

What is Soka education? Soka school system and the Soka Gakuen Educational Foundation defines it as follows:

Soka (value creating) education takes the human being as its focus and makes developing the humanity of each individual its objective. It approaches the work of education from the standpoint of absolute respect for the dignity of life and with the aim of raising self-reliant human beings who can create value in their own lives and in society. (Soka University and Soka Gakuen Educational Foundation 2001)

Distinct from many other forms of educational reform, Soka education can be described as an educational “stance” that contributes to but also transcends the discrete educational fields of curriculum, pedagogy, ideology, professional development, and systems of organization. It is focused on values, promoting enduring hope in the inherent capacities of students and educators. It emphasizes the nurturing of students who, through relationship with educators who are themselves attempting an inner “human revolution” (Ikeda, 1968), are capable of establishing personal happiness and creating value in society. Soka education affirms that the “realization of happiness is the primary purpose of education” (Bethel, 1989:17) and, further, that “the rightful purpose of education is the enabling of students to create value.” (Bethel, 1989:50)

Starting points in the study of Soka education:

Bethel, Dayle M. (ed.) Education for Creative Living—Ideas and Proposals of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1989.

____ Makiguchi the Value Creator: Revolutionary Japanese Educator and Founder of the Soka Gakkai. Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1994.

____ "Recovery of Community for Learning Societies: Learning from a Japanese Educational Pioneer." Swaraj Foundation Home Page.

Bliss, Hope C. Creating Value in Education: Past, Present and Future. Santa Monica, CA: Soka Gakkai International-USA, 1994.

Gebert, Andrew, and Monte Joffee. “Value Creation as the Aim of Education: Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Soka Education.” In Ethical Visions of Education: Philosophies in Practice, edited by David T. Hansen, 65-82. New York: Teachers College Press, 2007.

Goulah, Jason. Daisaku Ikeda, Language, and Education. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013. 

 ____ “Daisaku Ikeda and Value-Creating Dialogue: A new current in interculturalism and educational philosophy.” Educational Philosophy and Theory, 997-1009, Volume 44, Issue 9, 2012. 

____ "From (Harmonious) Community Life to (Creative) Coexistence: Considering Daisaku Ikeda’s Educational Philosophy in the Parker, Dewey, Makiguchi, and Ikeda 'Reunion.'" Schools: Studies in Education 7, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 253-75.

Goulah, Jason, and Andrew Gebert. "Tsunesaburo Makiguchi: Introduction to the Man, His Ideas, and the Special Issue." Educational Studies, Special Issue, 45, no. 2 (2009): 115-32.

Goulah, Jason and Takao Ito. “Daisaku Ikeda's Curriculum of Soka Education: Creating Value Through Dialogue, Global Citizenship, and ‘Human Education’ in the Mentor–Disciple Relationship.” Curriculum Inquiry, 56–79, Volume 42, issue 1, January 2012. 

Goulah, Jason, and Olivier Urbain. “Daisaku Ikeda’s Philosophy of Peace, Education Proposals, and Soka Education: Convergences and Divergences in Peace Education.” Journal of Peace Education, 303-322, Volume 10, issue 3, 2013. 

Heffron, J.M. “Soka Education as a Philosophy of Life: The SUA Experience.” Soka kyoiku (Soka Education), 2: 2009.

Ikeda, Daisaku. A New Humanism: the University Addresses of Daisaku Ikeda. London: IB Tauris, 2010.

____ "Education toward Global Citizenship." 1996. In Soka Education: For the Happiness of the Individual, 109-21. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2010.

____ "Glorious Future." In The New Human Revolution, 255-345. Vol. 12. Santa Monica, CA: Soka Gakkai, 2006.

____ Soka Education: For the Happiness of the Individual. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2010.

____ “The University of the 21st Century: Cradle of World Citizens.” Schools: Studies in Education, 246-252, Volume 7, Number 2, Fall 2010. 

Obelleiro, Gonzalo. “Value in Every Circumstance: An Interview with Gonzalo Obelleiro,” by Mitch Bogen. Ikeda Center for Peace, Learning, and Dialogue. 2010. thinkers-themes/thinkers/interviews/obelleiro.

Soka Education Student Research Project Website. http://www.sesrp.org/.

The Soka School System and Related School-wide Efforts to Apply Soka Education

The core practices of Soka education can be currently found in the 18 schools of the Soka school system: six kindergartens in Brazil, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore; two elementary schools in Japan and one in Brazil; two junior high schools and high schools in Japan; Soka Junior Women’s College in Tokyo; Soka University in Tokyo; and Soka University of America in the United States.

All of these schools were founded by Daisaku Ikeda who succeeded Makiguchi and Toda as the president of the Soka Gakkai. Currently Ikeda serves as the president of the Soka Gakkai International (www.sgi.org), an umbrella lay Buddhist organization of some 12 million members in 190 countries and territories. Ikeda has chronicled his efforts to found these schools in several chapters of his multi-volume autobiography, The New Human Revolution.

Soka education has inspired several independent private schools, such as the Soka Ikeda College of Arts and Science for Women, attached to Madras University in Chennai, India. Joffee (2006) has reported on the role of Soka education principles in his work as the principal of The Renaissance Charter School in New York City. Stephanie Tansey co-founded the New School for Collaborative Learning in Beijing based on her understanding of Makiguchi’s work.

Starting points in the study of school-wide applications of Soka education:

Gross, Carl H. Soka Gakkai and Education. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1970.

Ikeda, Daisaku. “Glorious Future.” In The New Human Revolution, 255-345. Vol. 12. Santa Monica, CA: Soka Gakkai, 2006.

____ “Soka University.” In The New Human Revolution, 87-245. Vol. 15. Santa Monica, CA: World Tribune Press, 2008.

____ “Hope.” In The New Human Revolution, 85-193. Vol. 17. Santa Monica, CA: World Tribune Press, 2009.

Joffee, Monte. "The Value Creation School: A Case Study of Collaborative Leadership in a K-12 Focus School." Diss., Teachers College, 2006.

Joffee, Monte, Jason Goulah, and Andrew Gebert. “Practical Implementation of Soka education: An Interview with Monte Joffee.” Educational Studies Journal, Vol. 45, Issue 2: 2009.

Nagashima, Julie T. “Fostering Global Citizens in the Twenty-First Century,” Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 2005. Accessed February 1, 2011.

Soka University, and Soka Gakuen Educational Foundation. Soka Education: a System for Cultivating Humane Values. Tokyo: Soka University, 2001.

Soka University of America. "SUA Capstones in the Ikeda Library." Daisaku and Kaneko Ikeda Library. 2010

Grassroots and Informal Educational Efforts in Soka Education

In addition to Soka schools, several educational programs to support humanistic education have been established by Soka educators. The “Makiguchi Project in Action” in Brazil has introduced enrichment and professional development activities based on principles of Soka education to over 164 local public schools since 1995 (De Melo Silva, 2000) and a similar program in Panama was launched in 1999.

Many educators consider themselves “Soka educators” although they do not work in schools within the Soka school system or in schools inspired by Soka education. The efforts and accomplishments of these practitioners are documented in publications of the SGI Buddhist organization as well as its website’s education tab (http://www.sgi.org/news/education.html). Members of the Soka Gakkai education department have initiated a project to document their individual work, filing more than 20,000 papers on their experiences applying the principles of Soka education in non-Soka settings. Some of the broad themes of these papers are summarized by Gebert and Joffee (2007). The Creative Education International Network is composed of Soka educators from around the world and has published since 2003 quarterly e-zines about its members’ work and accomplishments.

Soka education has inspired several grassroots educational efforts outside of schools. The Education Department of the Soka Gakkai in Japan, composed of Soka Gakkai members who are in the teaching profession, currently runs 34 Soka Gakkai Educational Counseling Centers (SGECC) throughout Japan that are staffed by more than 800 trained volunteer counselors with expertise in psychology and education. More than 360,000 parents and students have received counseling since the establishment of the first center in 1968.

Starting points in the study of grassroots efforts to implement
the principles of Soka education:

Creative Education International Network: A Dialogue to Open Human Potential. https://ceinwiki.wikispaces.com/.

de Melo Silva, Dilma. "Makiguchi Project in Action: Enhancing Education for Peace." Journal of Oriental Studies 10, Special Issue (2000): 62-93.

Gebert, Andrew, and Monte Joffee. “Value Creation as the Aim of Education: Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Soka Education.” In Ethical Visions of Education: Philosophies in Practice, edited by David T. Hansen, 65-82. New York: Teachers College Press, 2007. Also available at http://www.tmakiguchi.org/assets/images/Gebert_Joffee_rw_090120.pdf.

The Biography of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi

A considerable degree of scholarship has been undertaken on the life of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi. Many of these studies juxtapose the quite turbulent events of Makiguchi’s life and the very tempestuous times from which he emerged. English readers can find studies on his youth (Bethel 1994, 2002; Gebert and George 2000), his development of theories of geography and community studies (Bethel 2002; Gebert 2009), his efforts as an educational theorist and school principal (Bethel 1989), his emergence as a Buddhist leader when he was nearly 60 years old, and his ultimate arrest and death in prison due to resistance to the Japanese military authorities.

Starting points for research on the life of Makiguchi:

Bethel, Dayle M. Makiguchi the Value Creator: Revolutionary Japanese Educator and Founder of the Soka Gakkai. Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1994.

____ "Makiguchi’s Life and Work in Historical Context." Introduction to A Geography of Human Life, by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi, xii-xxii. San Francisco: Caddo Gap Press, 2002.

Gebert, Andrew and Anthony George. "Tsunesaburo Makiguchi—Founder of Soka: Value-Creating Education. Living Buddhism magazine, Volume 4, No. 8 (2000): 18-30.

Gebert, Andrew, and Monte Joffee. "Value Creation as the Aim of Education: Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Soka education." In Ethical Visions of Education: Philosophies in Practice, edited by David T. Hansen, 65-82. New York: Teachers College Press, 2007

Goulah, Jason, and Andrew Gerbert. “Tsunesaburo Makiguchi: Introduction to the Man, His Ideas, and the Special Issue.” Educational Studies, Special Issue, 45, no. 2 (2009): 115-32.

Ibrahim, Awad. "Learning to Learn: Makiguchi as a “Strong Poet” of Geography, Courage and Happiness." Educational Studies, Special Issue, 45, no. 2 (2009): 221-26.

Ikeda, Daisaku. “John Dewey and Tsunesaburo Makiguchi: Confluences of Thought and Action.” 2001. In Soka Education: For the Happiness of the Individual, 1-32. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2010.

____ "An Outspoken Advocate of Educational Reform." 1996. In Soka Education: For the Happiness of the Individual, 123-33. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2010.

Ito, Takao. "The Record of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi’s Interrogation by Wartime Japan’s 'Thought Police.'" Educational Studies, Special Issue, 45, no. 2 (2009): 133-45.

Saito, Shoji. “A Portrait of the Educator Tsunesaburo Makiguchi: Radicalism and the Pursuit of Universal Forms of Knowledge.” Tsunesaburo Makiguchi: Value-Creating Education website. http://www.tmakiguchi.org/resources.html.

Takeuchi, Keiichi. “Tsunesaburo Makiguchi.” Geographers: Biobibliographical Studies, 43-56, Vol. 20: 2000.

Tsunesaburo Makiguchi Website Committee. http://www.tmakiguchi.org/.

Tsunesaburo Makiguchi: For the Happiness of Children. Kinokuniya Co., Ltd., 2006. DVD

The Educational Theories of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi

Makiguchi bases his pedagogical ideas on his “Theory of Value.” It first began to take form in The Geography of Human Life (Jinsei Chirigaku), published in 1903, an introduction to the instruction of geography. Originally written while he was a head teacher in a Hokkaido one-room rural schoolhouse, the work gained popularity in Japanese teacher education circles. One theme of this work, the significance of community studies, was expanded in his second work Research into Community Studies as the Integrating Focus of Instruction (Kyoju no togo chushin toshiteno kyodoka kenkyu), published in 1916. His final work on education, The System of Value-Creating Pedagogy (Soka kyoikugaku taikei), published in 1930, was compiled by Josei Toda, based on Makiguchi's numerous notes written during his tenure as a school principal. Only four of the work’s planned 12-volume set were published.

At roughly the same time his career as a principal was eclipsing, Makiguchi began an intensive study of the Lotus Sutra and the writings of Nichiren that culminated in his founding of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (Society of Value-Creating Education) in 1930, a lay Buddhist movement for individual and social change with a focus on education. Between that year and 1937, when the organization was formally inaugurated, Makiguchi’s thoughts on education and value creation were infused with his newfound understanding of Buddhism. Few of his writings from this time are available in English although The Philosophy of Value—an English version of The System of Value-Creating Pedagogy, translated and published by the Soka Gakkai in 1964 based on a 1953 editing of the book by Josei Toda—contains several references to Buddhism.

Starting points for research on the educational theories of Makiguchi:

Bethel, Dayle M. (ed.) A Geography of Human Life. San Francisco, CA: Caddo Gap Press, 2002.

____ (ed.). Education for Creative Living: Ideas and Proposals of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1989.

____ Makiguchi: The Value Creator: Revolutionary Japanese Educator and Founder of the Soka Gakkai. Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1994.

____ “The Legacy of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi: Value Creating Education and Global Citizenship.” In Global Citizens: The Soka Gakkai Buddhist Movement in the World, edited by David Machacek and Bryan Wilson, 42-66. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

____ "Work, Community, and the Development of Moral Character." In Creating Learning Communities: Models, Resources, and New Ways of Thinking about Teaching and Learning. Translated by Ron Miller, 257-266. Brandon, VT: Foundation for Educational Renewal, 2000.

Gebert, Andrew. "The Role of Community Studies in the Makiguchian Pedagogy." Educational Studies, Special Issue, 45, no. 2 (2009): 146-64.

Gebert, Andrew. “The Writing Subject: Makiguchi Tsunesaburo and the Teaching of Composition.” Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 12-21 Vol. 12, No. 1: 2013.

Goulah, Jason. “On the Substance and Application of Makiguchi Tsunesaburo’s Perspectives on Language, Identity, and Education: An Introduction.” Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 1-6, Vol. 12, No. 1: 2013.

Goulah, Jason. “Makiguchi Tseunesaburo and Language, Value-Creative Composition Instruction, and the Geography of Identity in Community Studies: A Response to Politicized Imagining and Ineffective Critical Approaches.” Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 22-39, Vol. 12, No. 1: 2013.

Goulah, Jason and Andrew Gebert. Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944): Educational Philosophy in Context. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013. 

Goulah, Jason, and Andrew Gerbert. “Tsunesaburo Makiguchi: Introduction to the Man, His Ideas, and the Special Issue.” Educational Studies, Special Issue, 45, no. 2 (2009): 115-32.

____ "Makiguchi in the Fractured Future‚: Value-creating and Transformative World Language Learning." Educational Studies, Special Issue, 45, no. 2 (2009): 193-213.

Hatano, Kazuma. “Makiguchian Perspectives in Language Policy and Planning.” Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 50-60, Vol. 12, No. 1: 2013.

Inukai, Nozomi. “Soka Kyoikugaku Taikei Versus Education for Creative Living: How Makiguchi Tsunesaburo’s Educational Ideas Are Presented in English.” Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 40-49, Vol. 12, No. 1: 2013.

Kumagai, Kazunori. "Value-creating Pedagogy and Japanese Education in the Modern Era." The Journal of Oriental Studies, Special Edition, 10 (2000): 29-45.

Miyata, Koichi. "Tsunesaburo Makiguchi's Theory of State." The Journal of Oriental Studies, Special Edition, 10 (2000): 10-28.

Pagan, Iris T. Dissertation. "Makiguchian Pedagogy in the Middle School Science Classroom." Teachers College, Columbia University, 2001.

Saito, Shoji. "A Portrait of the Educator Tsunesaburo Makiguchi: Radicalism and the Pursuit of Universal Forms of Knowledge." 1989. http://www.tmakiguchi.org/resources.html

____ "The Young Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Our Times: From the Frontline of Research on Jinsei Chirigaku (The Geography of Human Life)." 1989.

Shimazono, Susumu. "Makiguchi's Educational Philosophy and Life-Based Knowledge." Translated by T. Kano. The Journal of Oriental Studies 5 (1995): 38-47.

Takeuchi, Keiichi. “Geography and Buddhism in Tsunesaburo Makiguchi’s Thought.” In T. Mizuuchi (Ed.), Nation, Region, and the Politics of Geography in East Asia, 3-12. Osaka, Japan: Osaka City University, 1999. 

Tsunesaburo, Makiguchi. “How Should Reading and Composition Be Brought Into [Clearer] Connection? [1898].” Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 7-11, Vol. 12, No. 1: 2013.

Josei Toda & His Attempts to Actualize Soka Education

Josei Toda taught in two of Makiguchi's elementary schools. In 1923 Toda established his private school, the Jisshu Gakkan, largely to substantiate Makiguchi’s pedagogical theories free of the governmental interference that was present in public schools. Makiguchi referred to the Jisshu Gakkan as a materialization of his own vision for elementary schools and as the greatest proof of his work (Ikeda, 2010: 99). On the basis of his classroom experience Toda published Deductive Guide to Arithmetic (Suirishiki shido sanjutsu), a highly successful self-guided “prep” book to supplement school instruction. Makiguchi also gave credit to Toda for the editing and publication of The System of Value-Creating Pedagogy. Toda was imprisoned together with Makiguchi and upon his release began preliminary planning for a Soka school system to actualize Makiguchi’s vision.

Starting points for research on the educational contributions of Toda:

Ikeda, Daisaku. "Dawn." In The Human Revolution, Vol. 1. Santa Monica, CA: Soka Gakkai, 2009.

____ "Emerging from the Earth." In The Human Revolution, 234-44. Vol. 2. Santa Monica, CA: World Tribune Press, 2004.

____ "Serving the Essential Needs of Education." In Soka Education: For the Happiness of the Individual, 75-108. Santa Monica: Middleway Press, 2010.

Soka Gakkai Josei Toda Website Committee. "Value Creating Education: Overview." http://www.joseitoda.org.

Shiohara, Masayuki. “The Ideas and Practices of Josei Toda: A Successor of Soka Education.” Soka Kyoiku (Soka Education), 1 (2008): 148-161.

Daisaku Ikeda and His Contributions to the Actualization of Soka Education

After spending ten years under Toda’s tutelage, Daisaku Ikeda began directly implementing the ideas of Makiguchi and Toda through the formation of the Soka school system. He has also written prolifically and engaged in numerous dialogues with influential thinkers about humanistic education as a core component of long-lasting, far-reaching personal and social change. Ikeda's writing takes the form of books, essays, peace proposals, speeches and university lectures. His partners in published dialogues range from Arnold Toynbee to Rosa Parks to Mikhail Gorbachev, and many more. The English language version of a recent dialogue with Dewey scholars Larry Hickman and Jim Garrison will be published in 2012 by the Ikeda Center's Dialogue Path Press.

Ikeda’s commitment to education stems from personal experience, his own formal education severely hampered by the war and postwar dislocation. During this time he furthered his studies through voracious reading and participation in peer-led literary discussion groups. Unable to pursue higher education due to his heavy work responsibilities in Toda’s businesses, Ikeda was personally tutored by Toda in a wide variety of subjects. These experiences instilled in Ikeda a deep passion to practice and promote lifelong learning, both formal and informal in nature.

Ikeda’s autobiographical novel, The New Human Revolution, features deeply personal narratives of his many educational accomplishments including: the formation of the Soka schools, the creation of the Soka Gakkai Student Division, the opening of a correspondence program for Soka University, the launching of the Soka Gakkai Educators Division. The New Human Revolution as well as his Dialogues with Youth contain many examples of his personal encouragement to youth, students, and teachers.

Ikeda's educational philosophy advocates a deep “people-centric” approach that aims to bring forth the capabilities and potentials of children, teachers, parents, and the community itself. His pedagogy values the development of wisdom over the mere accumulation of knowledge and compassionate concern for the well being of the world over a narrow focus on personal gain alone. As expounded in numerous essays, proposals, dialogues, speeches, and university addresses, Ikeda's vision seeks to transcend ideological frameworks such as “progressive” or “traditional.” Further, it is not intended as an endorsement of a particular school reform model or political position. Miller (2002) and Urbain (2010) have synthesized the body of Ikeda’s works in an attempt to define and systematize his educational and philosophical thought. The Daisaku Ikeda website is rich with Ikeda's education-related essays and lectures.

Ikeda’s work on behalf of education is very much ongoing, as noted in this comment in his dialogue with John Galbraith: "I consider education to be the culminating undertaking of my life. That is because the victory of education means the victory of the people."

Starting points for research on the educational contributions of Ikeda:

Gebert, Andrew. “Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation.” Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 15-32, Vol. 9, Issue 1-2: 2012.

Goulah, Jason. “Daisaku Ikeda and Value-Creative Dialogue: A new current in interculturalism and educational philosophy.” Educational Philosophy and Theory, Vol. 10: 2012.

Goulah, Jason. “Realizing Daisaku Ikeda’s Educational Philosophy Through Language Learning and Study Abroad: A Critical Instrumental Case Study.” Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 60-89, Vol. 9, Issue 1-2: 2012.

Goulah, Jason. “Daisaku Ikeda and Language: An Introduction.” Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 1-14, Vol. 9, Issue 1-2: 2012.

Goulah, Jason. "Ikeda’s Environmental Ethics of Humanitarian Competition: A Review of His United Nations Peace and Education Proposals." Peace Studies Journal 3, no. 1, 2010.

Hatano, Kazuma. “Daisaku Ikeda’s Educational Philosophy in the Context of English Education Policy in Japan.” Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 118-131, Vol. 9, Issue 1-2: 2012.

Ikeda, Daisaku. A New Humanism: the University Addresses of Daisaku Ikeda. London: IB Tauris, 2010.

____ “Courage.”In The New Human Revolution, Vol. 23. Santa Monica, CA: World Tribune Press, 2011.

____ “Gratitude.” In The New Human Revolution, Vol. 18, 85-170. Santa Monica, CA: World Tribune Press, 2009.

____ "Humanity in Education." 1984. In Soka Education: For the Happiness of the Individual, 161-75. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2010.

____ "Reviving Education." 2001. In Soka Education: For the Happiness of the Individual, 49-74. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2010.

____ "Serving the Essential Needs of Education." 2000. In Soka Education: For the Happiness of the Individual, 75-108. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2010.

____ "The Flower of Culture."In The New Human Revolution, Vol. 7. 2001.

____ "Young Phoenixes."In The New Human Revolution, Vol. 9.

____ "Mighty River." In The New Human Revolution, 276-306, Vol. 14. Santa Monica, CA: World Tribune Press.

____ "Teachers of My Childhood." In One by One: The World Is Yours to Change, 135-48. Sonoma, CA: Dunhill Pub., 2004.

____ To the Youthful Pioneers of Soka: Lectures, Essays and Poems on Value-creating Education. Tokyo: Soka University Student Union, 2006.

____ Soka Education: for the Happiness of the Individual. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2010.

Inukai, Nozomi. “Ikeda Research in China and Taiwan: Critical Analysis of the Chinese Language Literature.” Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 90-117, Vol. 9, Issue 1-2: 2012.

Kazanjian Jr., Victor. "Foreword." Foreword to Soka Education: for the Happiness of the Individual. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2010.

Miller, George David. Peace, Value, and Wisdom: the Educational Philosophy of Daisaku Ikeda. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2002.

Nagashima, Julie T. “Daisaku Ikeda’s Philosophy of Soka Education in Practice: A Narrative Analysis of Culturally Specific Language.” Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 132-151, Vol. 9, Issue 1-2: 2012.

Nishiyama, Isao, comp. The Tide Toward the 21st Century: Addresses by Founder Daisaku Ikeda. Hachioji-City Tokyo: Soka University Student International Center, 1975.

Obelleiro, Gonzalo. “A Moral Cosmopolitan Perspective on Language Education.” Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 33-59, Vol. 9, Issue 1-2: 2012. (sub-section: Second Language Education/Learning)

Sharma, Namrata. “Revisiting the Concept of Dialogue in Global Citizenship Education.” International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning, Vol. 3, No. 2: 2011.

Soka Education Research Institute. “For Research on the Ideas and Practices of Soka Education and the Realization of Its Founding Spirit.” http://office.soka.ac.jp/faculty/edu_research/en/index.html.

Urbain, Olivier. Daisaku Ikeda's Philosophy of Peace: Dialogue, Transformation and Global Citizenship. London: I.B. Tauris in Association with the Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Research, 2010.

Cross Comparisons: Soka Education and Other Systems

In its initial stage, most of the scholarly work on Soka education has been focused on its underlying history, theory, or philosophy. A second stage of research is slowly emerging that compares Soka education with other modes of thought. For example Coggins compares the philosophy of Soka education to that of many other historical educationists:

Coggins, Iain M. Lost Apple: A Novel. Amazon Digital Services, 2012.

This has resulted in interesting comparisons of educational approaches that cut across cultures. From this perspective the literature on Soka education offers a promising direction for cross-cultural studies in the field of education. A good example is this dialogue between Ikeda and Gu comparing the roots of Soka education to currents in the history of early 20th century China:

Ikeda, Daisaku, and Mingyuan Gu. "Humane Education: A Bridge to Peace, Part 1." Institute of Oriental Philosophy. 2009. http://www.iop.or.jp/0919/ikeda_mingyuan.pdf.

Daisaku, Ikeda, and Mingyuan Gu. "Humane Education, A Bridge to Peace, Part 2." Institute of Oriental Philosophy. 2009. http://www.iop.or.jp/1020/ikeda_mingyuan.pdf.

Below are studies that compare the underpinnings of Soka education to the works of other key thinkers:

Mikhail Bakhtin (1895-1975), Russia

Goulah, Jason. "Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Mikhail Bakhtin in Dialogue: Pedagogy for a Spatial Literacy of Ecological Selfhood." Asia Pacific Journal of Education 29, no. 2 (2009): 265-79.

Hatano, Kazuma. "Voice in EFL Education in a Japanese Context: Makiguchi's Perspectives in the Concept of ‘Voice’" Educational Studies, Special Issue, 45, no. 2 (2009): 165-80.

Paulo Freire (1921-1997), Brazil

Sanchez, Maria F. "Makiguchi & Freire: The Role of Education in Social Change." Speech, Soka Education Student Research Project Annual Conference 2005, Aliso Viejo, CA, March 27, 2005.

Lev Vygotsky (1896-1034), Russia

Goulah, Jason. "Considering Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Lev Vygotsky in the Concept of Space." Soka Kyoiku (Soka Education) 2 (2009): 84-92.

John Dewey (1859-1952), United States

He, Ming Fang. “East-West Epistemological Convergence of Humanism in Language, Identity, and Education: Confucius-Makiguchi-Dewey.” Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 61-70, Vol. 12, No. 1: 2013.

Hickman, Larry A. "Democracy, Education, and Value Creation." Institute of Oriental Philosophy. 2002.

Ikeda, Daisaku. “John Dewey and Tsunesaburo Makiguchi: Confluences of Thought and Action.” 2001. In Soka Education: For the Happiness of the Individual, 1-32. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2010.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948), India

Sharma, Namrata. “Makiguchi and Gandhi: Some Comparative Issues on the Sacred, Secular and Political Education.” Comparative and International Education Review, Issue 10 (2008): 70-96.

Sharma, Namrata. Makiguchi and Gandhi: Their Educational Relevance for the 21st Century. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2008.

Sharma, Namrata. Value Creators in Education: Japanese Educator Makiguchi & Mahatma Gandhi and Their Relevance for the Indian Education. New Delhi: Regency Publications, 1999.

Sharma, Namrata. “Value Creation, Sarvodaya & Participatory Democracy: Three Legacies for a Creative and Democratic World Order Through the Process of Education.” Social Change, Journal of the Council of Social Development, Volume 32 (March-June 2002): 99-116.

Francis W. Parker (1837-1902), United States

Goulah, Jason. "(Harmonious) Community Life as the Goal of Education: A Bilingual Dialogue between Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Francis W. Parker." Schools: Studies in Education 7, no. 1 (2010): 64-85.

Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), Austria-Hungary (now Croatia)

Reiser, Melanie. "Soka Elementary Education in America: What Will It Look Like?" Thesis, Antioch University New England, 2005.

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827), Switzerland

Ito, Takao. “Readings from Daisaku Ikeda's Youth—Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi in the Early Development of Daisaku Ikeda's Educational Thought.” Soka Kyoiku (Soka Education), 1 (2008): 141-147.

Applications of Soka Education in Discipline Studies and the Classroom

A third stage of research is emerging which examines Soka education as it applies to various specific fields of pedagogy. Although many of these studies are anecdotal or qualitative in nature, from this base it is possible to predict that future studies in direct applications will be undertaken. Also, citations from the body of research in Soka education are starting to appear in the literature. The Penny Poole and Aubrey and McMorrow entries below are examples of this new development.

Counseling

Donnelly, James P. "Value Creation as the Aim of Education: Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Soka education." Educational Studies, Special Issue, 45, no. 2 (2009): 214-16.

Geography Education

Goulah, Jason. "Francis W. Parker, Tsunesaburo Makiguchi, and Lucy Sprague Mitchell: Young Geographers, Geography Studies, and Community Life: Introduction." Schools: Studies in Education, 1st ser., 7 (May 1, 2010): 41-46.

Takeuchi, Keiichi. "The Significance of Makiguchi Tsunesaburo’s Jinsei Chirigaku (Geography of Human Life) in the Intellectual History of Geography in Japan: Commemorating the Centenary of Its Publication." The Journal of Oriental Studies 14 (2004).

Yasuda, Yoshinori. "A Geography of Human Life and My Life." Institute of Oriental Philosophy. September 25, 2007. http://www.iop.or.jp/.

Education for Peace, Environment, Sustainable Development and Human Rights

Goulah, Jason, and Olivier Urbain. “Daisaku Ikeda’s Philosophy of Peace, Education Proposals, and Soka Education: Convergences and Divergences in Peace Education.” Journal of Peace Education, 303-322, Volume 10, issue 3, 2013. 

Ikeda, Daisaku. "The Challenge of Global Empowerment: Education for a Sustainable Future." In Soka Education: For the Happiness of the Individual, 35-48. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2010.

____ "Foreword." In Educating Citizens for Global Awareness, edited by Nel Noddings. ix-xi. New York: Teachers College Press, 2005.

____ "The Path of Community." In For the Sake of Peace: Seven Paths to Global Harmony, a Buddhist Perspective, 71-98. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press, 2001.

Nagashima, Julie T. "Fostering Global Citizens in the Twenty-First Century." 2008.

Norton, David L. Preface. In Imagination, Understanding, and the Virtue of Liberality, Ix-Xiii. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1996.

Poole, Penny. "Happiness, Community and Pedagogy." Thesis, Athabasca, Alberta Athabasca University, 2010.

Soka Education Student Research Project. "Soka Education: Present and Future." Soka Education Conference, 2005. http://www.sesrp.org/?page_id=19.

Soka Education Student Research Project. "Soka Education: Leadership for Sustainable Development." Soka Education Conference, 2006. http://www.sesrp.org/?page_id=19.

Soka Education Student Research Project. "Soka Education: A Dialogue between Civil Society and Education." Soka Education Conference, 2007. http://www.sesrp.org/?page_id=19.

Tachibana, Joanne F. Soka Gakkai: Evolution of the Idea of Education for World Peace. Thesis, University of Hawaii, 1985.

Yamamuro, Shinichi. "The Source and Development of Japan’s Philosophies of Non-violence." Institute of Oriental Philosophy. November 24, 2009. http://www.iop.or.jp/.

Science education

Pagan, I. T. "Makiguchian Pedagogy in the Middle School Science Classroom." Dissertation, Teachers College, Columbia University, 2001.

Second Language Education/Learning

Donayre, Gisella. "Soka Education through the Teaching of English in Peru: from the Official Curriculum to Reality and Back Again." Thesis, Soka University of America, 2003.

Goulah, Jason. “Dialogic Resistance in Education.” In Critical Essays on Resistance in Education, by David M. Moss and Terry A. Osborn, 83-104. New York: Peter Lang, 2010.

____ "Creative Coexistence, Value and Transformative Online Education for Social Self-actualization.” In Handbook of Research on Transformative Online Education and Liberation: Models for Social Equality, edited by Gulsun Kurubacak and T. Volkan Yuzer, 232-44. Hershey PA: Information Science Reference, 2011.

____  Daisaku Ikeda, Language, and Education. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013.

____ "Daisaku Ikeda, Soka Education and Foreign Language Learning: A Short Essay." Soka kyoiku (Soka Education), 4 (2011): 222-226.

____ "Environmental Displacement, English Learners, Identity and Value Creation: Considering Daisaku Ikeda in the East-West Ecology of Education." In Transformative Eco-Education for Human Survival in the 21st Century, edited by Jing Lin and Rebecca Oxford. (In Press).

____ “From Abstraction and Militarization of Language Education to Society for Language Education: Lessons from Daisaku Ikeda and Tsunesaburo Makiguchi." In Education as Enforcement: the Militarization and Corporatization of Schools, edited by Kenneth J. Saltman and David A. Gabbard, 173-180. New York: Routledge, 2011.

____ "Makiguchi in the Fractured Future‚: Value-creating and Transformative World Language Learning." Educational Studies, Special Issue, 45, no. 2 (2009): 193-213.

 ____ "Proposing Compulsory Study Abroad and Language Learning in Elementary through University Education: Resisting Abstraction in the Dialogic Space Abroad." In ISLS Readings in Language Studies, Volume 2: Language and Power. 2010. 

Hatano, Kazuma. "Voice in EFL Education in a Japanese Context: Makiguchi's Perspectives in the Concept of ‘Voice.’" Educational Studies, Special Issue, 45, no. 2 (2009): 165-80.

Heinesen, Nancy. "Soka Education: Value-creating Pedagogy as Applied to Language Education." Thesis, Soka University of America, 1995.

Lee, Woon Hwa. "A Model for Value-creating Pedagogy in Korean Preschools: Cultivating a Global Perspective in Young Learners of English." Thesis, Soka University of America, 2002.

Shimizu, Keiko. "Bringing Hope to the Youth: Soka Education in the Japanese High School English Classroom." Thesis, Soka University of America, 2000.

Simoes, Claudionor Antonio. "Makiguchi Project in Action: Bringing Forth High Motivational Second & Foreign Language Acquisition Environments." Thesis, Soka University of America, 2003.

Soka University of America Graduate School. "MA Theses and Projects: Second and Foreign Language Education." MA Theses and Projects: Second and Foreign Language Education. Accessed January 30, 2011.

Practices of Character-Based and Student-Centered Education

Aubrey, Adele, and Julia McMorrow. "How Could We Model Enquiry-Based Learning? Functional and Values-Based Perspectives on Student-Centred Education." CEEBL-Supported Projects, 2008-2010, Centre for Excellence in Enquiry-Based Learning (CEEBL), University of Manchester, 4-20. Also available at: http://www.campus.manchester.ac.uk/ceebl/projects/casestudies/97.pdf.

Carter-Jones, Sheila L. "Reading as an Act of Creating Value: Character Education in a Montessori School." Yale National Initiative, 2003.

Joffee, Monte. "Value-creating Education: A Nichiren Buddhist Perspective." In Nurturing Child and Adolescent Spirituality: Perspectives from the World's Religious Traditions, edited by Karen-Marie Yust, Aostre N. Johnson, Sandy E. Sasso, and Eugene C. Roehlkepartain, 309-19. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006.

Special Education

Zweber, Leann. "Work of Makiguchi, Montessori, and Dewey: Implications for Inclusive Education." Thesis, St. Cloud University, MN, 1996.

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* Monte Joffee, Ed.D., is the founder and director of EdGloCit, an organization whose mission centers on designing and implementing applications of education for global citizenship amidst the harsh realities of today's educational landscape. Joffee's research interests center on charter schools, school reform, the leadership of "reluctant heros," and the educational philosophy of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi. Joffee was a co-founder of The Renaissance Charter School in New York City and served as its principal for 14 years.